What is DNS Server? (Explained)

In the world of networks, computers do not have names like humans, but numbers, because that is how computers and other similar devices communicate and identify with each other through a network, which is through the use of numbers as addresses IP. Humans, on the other hand, are accustomed to using names instead of numbers, whether speaking directly with another person or identifying a country, place or thing, humans identify themselves with names instead of numbers.


So, to close the communication gap between computers and humans and make network engineers communication much easier, they developed DNS, and DNS means a domain name system. And DNS resolves names to numbers, to be more specific resolves domain names to IP addresses. So, if you type a web address in your web browser, DNS will resolve the name into a number because the only thing computers know is numbers.

So, for example, if you want to go to a certain website, you must open your web browser and enter the domain name of that website, for example, let’s use yahoo.com. Now, technically, you don’t really have to type yahoo.com to retrieve the Yahoo website, you can simply type the IP address if you already knew what the IP address was, but since we are not used to memorizing and dealing with numbers, especially when There are millions of websites on the Internet, we can simply type the domain name and let DNS make it an IP address for us.


Let’s go back to our example, when you type yahoo.com your web browser the DNS server with the search through its database to find a matching IP address for that domain name, and when it finds it, it will resolve that domain name to the IP address of the Yahoo website, and once this is done, your computer can communicate with a Yahoo web server and retrieve the web page. So DNS basically works like a phone book, when you want to find a number, you don’t look for the number first, you look for the name first and then it will give you the number. So, to break down this in more detail, let’s examine the steps that DNS takes. Then, when you type yahoo.com in your web browser and if your web browser or operating system cannot find the IP address in its own cache, it will send the query to the next level at what is called the resolution server. The resolution server is basically your ISP or Internet service provider, so when the resolution receives the query, it will check its own cache to find an IP address for yahoo.com, and if it cannot find it, it will send the query to the next level, which It is the root server. Root servers are the top or root of a DNS hierarchy. There are 13 sets of these root servers and they are strategically located worldwide, and are operated by 12 different organizations and each set of these root servers has its own unique IP address. Then, when the root server receives the query for the yahoo.com IP address, the root server will not know what the IP address is, but the root server knows where to send the solver to help it find the IP address.


Therefore, the root server will direct the resolution to the TLD or to the top-level domain server for the dot-com domain. Then, the solver will ask the TLD server for the IP address of yahoo.com. The top-level domain server stores the address information of a top-level domain, such as .com, .net and .org, etc. This particular TLD server manages the dot-com domain of which yahoo.com is part. So, when a TLD server receives the query for the yahoo.com IP address, the TLD server will not know what the yahoo.com IP addresses are. Therefore, the TLD will direct the solver to the next and last level, which are the authorized name servers. Then, once again, the solver will ask the authorized name server for the yahoo.com IP address. The server or authorized name servers are responsible for knowing everything about the domain that includes the IP address. They are the final authority. Then, when the authorized name server receives the query from the solver, the name server will respond with the yahoo.com IP address. And finally, the solver will tell your computer the IP address of yahoo.com and then your computer can now retrieve the Yahoo website. It is important to keep in mind that once the solver receives the IP address, it will be stored in its cache in case it receives another query for yahoo.com so you don’t have to follow all those steps again.

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